BJS: Bureau of Justice Statistics

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Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS)
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Home | Corrections
Corrections
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Corrections refers to the supervision of persons arrested for, convicted of, or sentenced for criminal offenses. Correctional populations fall into two general categories: institutional corrections and community corrections. Corrections data, with a few exceptions, covers adult agencies or facilities and adult offenders.

The Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS) Corrections Unit maintains over 30 data collections. Most are annual collections of administrative data from correctional administrators, ranging from basic population counts and offender demographic characteristics to facility capacity, programs, staff, and resources. These data collections include—

The NPS also collects counts on specific inmate populations from the Department of Defense (DoD) and the U.S. territories. Some limited information on the number of juveniles held in adult facilities is also collected in the NPS and the ASJ. Jails in Indian Country is a separate collection for data on counts and characteristics of persons held in tribal jails. BJS also tracks administrative data on other topics, such as HIV in correctional facilities; deaths in custody; sexual assault in correctional facilities; and capital punishment statutes, populations, and executions.

In addition to collecting administrative data, BJS maintains a number of recurring national surveys of prison and jail inmates. These surveys are conducted periodically and use a nationally representative sample of inmates. The surveys, Survey of Prison Inmates (formerly known as the Survey of Inmates in State and Federal Correctional Facilities) and the Survey of Inmates in Local Jails, are broad in scope and collect a wide range of data on the personal and criminal histories of criminal offenders. Topics cover childhood experiences, family structure, educational background, prior criminal activity, substance abuse experiences, mental and physical health problems, and conditions of current confinement. Estimates derived from these surveys are national and, with rare exceptions, are not available at the state or facility level.

Data Collections & Surveys

Publications & Products


Disabilities Reported by Prisoners: Survey of Prison Inmates, 2016 This brief presents findings based on data collected in the 2016 Survey of Prison Inmates, a survey conducted through face-to-face interviews with a national sample of state and federal prisoners across a variety of topics, such as their demographic characteristics, socio-economic background, health, and involvement with the criminal justice system.
  Full report (PDF 410K) | Data tables (Zip format 11K)

Parents in Prison and Their Minor Children: Survey of Prison Inmates, 2016 This brief presents findings based on data collected in the 2016 Survey of Prison Inmates, a survey conducted through face-to-face interviews with a national sample of state and federal prisoners across a variety of topics, such as their demographic characteristics, socio-economic background, health, and involvement with the criminal justice system.
  Full report (PDF 378K) | Data tables (Zip format 7K)

Veterans in Prison: Survey of Prison Inmates, 2016 This brief presents findings based on data collected in the 2016 Survey of Prison Inmates, a survey conducted through face-to-face interviews with a national sample of state and federal prisoners across a variety of topics, such as their demographic characteristics, socio-economic background, health, and involvement with the criminal justice system.
  Full report (PDF 400K) | Data tables (Zip format 700K)
Part of the Veterans in State and Federal Prisons Series

Time Served in State Prison, 2018 This report presents findings on the time served by prisoners released from state prison in 2018.
  Summary (PDF 171K) | Full report (PDF 479K) | Data tables (Zip format 736K)

Jail Inmates in 2019 This report is the 33rd in a series that began in 1982. It provides statistics based on BJS's Annual Survey of Jails and Census of Jails.
  Press Release (32K) | Summary (PDF 197K) | Full report (PDF 601K) | Data tables (Zip format 23K)
Part of the Prison and Jail Inmates at Midyear Series

Impact of COVID-19 on the Local Jail Population, January-June 2020 This report describes the impact of COVID-19 on the local jail population during the 6-month period from January to June 2020, including the impact on the release of jail inmates, admissions to jails, jail capacity, and incarceration rates.
  Press Release (32K) | Summary (PDF 195K) | Full report (PDF 743K) | Data tables (Zip format 30K)

Federal Prisoner Statistics Collected under the First Step Act, 2020 This is the second report as required under the First Step Act of 2018 (FSA; P.L. 115-391). It includes data on federal prisoners provided to BJS by the Federal Bureau of Prisons (BOP) for calendar year 2019, the first full year of BOP operation under the FSA.
  Full report (PDF 516K) | Data tables (Zip format 16K)
Part of the Federal Prisoner Statistics Collected under the First Step Act Series

Federal Justice Statistics, 2015 - Statistical Tables This report is based on data from BJS's Federal Justice Statistics Program, which began in 1979. It provides national statistics on the federal response to crime for fiscal year 2015.
  Full report (PDF 1.8M) | Data tables (Zip format 56K)
Part of the Federal Justice Statistics Series

Federal Justice Statistics, 2016 - Statistical Tables This report is based on data from BJS's Federal Justice Statistics Program, which began in 1979. It provides national statistics on the federal response to crime for fiscal year 2016.
  Full report (PDF 1.8M) | Data tables (Zip format 56K)
Part of the Federal Justice Statistics Series

Federal Deaths in Custody and During Arrest, 2016-2017 - Statistical Tables This report is the first in a series that examines deaths that occur during federal arrest, detention, and incarceration in the United States.
  Full report (PDF 648K) | Data tables (Zip format 15K)

Terms & Definitions

Admissions All persons booked into and housed in jail facilities by formal legal document and the authority of the courts or some other official agency, including repeat offenders booked on new charges and persons sentenced to weekend programs or entering the facility for the first time. They exclude inmates re-entering the facility after an escape, work release, medical appointment, stay in a treatment facility, and bail or court appearance.
 
Average daily population The sum of inmates in jail each day for a year, divided by the number of days in the year.
 
Community corrections The supervision of criminal offenders in the resident population, as opposed to confining offenders in secure correctional facilities. The two main types of community corrections supervision are probation and parole. Community corrections is also referred to as community supervision.
 
Custody To have custody of a prisoner, a state or the Federal Bureau of Prisons (BOP) must physically hold that person in one of its facilities. A locality, state, or the BOP may hold inmates over whom a different government maintains jurisdiction.
 
Custody count The number of offenders in custody. To have custody of a prisoner, a state or the Federal Bureau of Prisons (BOP) must physically hold that person in one of its facilities. A locality, state, or the BOP may have custody of a prisoner over whom a different government maintains jurisdiction.
 
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