What types of police contact were included?
The types of contact in the PPCS include those initiated by residents, initiated by police, and resu... Read More
How many persons had contact with police in 2015?
In 2015, about 53.5 million U.S. residents age 16 or older had one or more contacts with police duri... Read More
What is the difference between homicide and justifiable homicide?
Homicide is the killing of a human being by another human being. The ARD program gathers data on hom... Read More
What is the Arrest-Related Deaths (ARD) program?
The ARD program is a national census of persons who die either during the process of arrest or whi... Read More
Does the ARD program include deaths resulting from any use of force by state or local law enforcement personnel?
Yes. The ARD collection includes all deaths that result from any use of force by law enforcement off... Read More
Does the ARD program include deaths caused by civilians during the process of arrest?
Yes. The ARD program includes deaths caused by injuries sustained by non-law enforcement personnel d... Read More
Does an arrest warrant need to be issued to qualify a death as arrest related?
No. The data collection includes deaths of arrest subjects regardless of whether an arrest warrant... Read More
When does the ARD program include suicides?
A suicide, or the intentional killing of oneself, is considered arrest related if the deceased inter... Read More
Are deaths resulting from vehicle accidents considered arrest related?
Sometimes. Deaths resulting from vehicular accidents are within the scope of the ARD program if they... Read More
Does the ARD program require a person to be in physical custody of law enforcement at the time of death?
No. The collection does not exclude deaths based on a lack of establishing physical custody. For exa... Read More
What is the difference between a sheriffs' office and a police department?
One difference between a sheriffs' office and police department is the jurisdiction that each type o... Read More
Do all sheriffs' office employees have general arrest authority?
No, some sheriffs' office personnel are not sworn officers. While sheriffs' offices employed about 1... Read More
How many women are employed by sheriffs' offices?
Females made up 14% of full-time sworn officers employed by sheriffs' offices in 2016. As of June 30... Read More
Where can I find a list of federally recognized tribes in the U.S.?
A list of federally recognized tribes in the U.S. is available at https://www.loc.gov/catdir/cpso/bi... Read More
What types of arrest-related deaths are recorded as accidental?
Accidental injury is the sustainment of unintentional physical damage or harm. The ARD program recor... Read More
Does a person have to be in physical custody of law enforcement at the time of death to be reported to the Arrest-Related Deaths program?
No. Deaths were not excluded from the collection on the basis that physical custody had not been est... Read More
How do I get paper copies of older reports that are not on your webpage?
You no longer have to order paper copies of BJS reports released prior to 1995. More than 450 BJS pu... Read More
What are the characteristics of persons who come into contact with the police for different reasons?
An estimated 31.4 million persons age 16 or older, or 13% of the population, requested assistance fr... Read More
Who is the largest employer of federal officers?
The largest employers of federal officers were U.S. customs and Border Protection (CBP) (27,705), Fe... Read More
How many persons have contact with the police in a given year?
During 2011, over 62.9 million U.S. residents age 16 or older, or 26% of the population, had one or ... Read More
What types of duties do U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP) officers perform?
CBP officers are tasked with stopping terrorists, terrorist weapons, illegal drugs, aliens, and mate... Read More
What are federal officers' major functions?
The largest number of federal officers performed criminal investigation and law enforcement duties (... Read More
What are the requirements for full-time instructors at training academies?
About three-quarters (75%) of training academies had a minimum law enforcement experience requiremen... Read More
How many cars are operated by state and local law enforcement agencies nationwide?
According to the Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS) Law Enforcement and Management Administrative St... Read More
How do the Bureau of Justice Statistics' (BJS) counts of law enforcement officers differ from the annual counts of the FBI's Uniform Crime Reports (UCR)?
BJS counts generated by the Census of State and Local Law Enforcement Agencies (CSLLEA) are mor... Read More
How many officers do these state and local law enforcement agencies employ?
According to the 2016 BJS Law Enforcement Management and Administrative Statistics (LEMAS) survey, s... Read More
On average, how many recruits graduate from their training program?
About 6 in 7 recruits completed their basic training program and graduated from the academy.... Read More
What types of functions do campus law enforcement officers perform?
Campus law enforcement agencies performed functions related to special events security, dispatching ... Read More
What is the difference between sworn and nonsworn officers?
Sworn officers have full arrest powers granted by a state or local government. Nonsworn officers do ... Read More
How many college campuses have sworn, armed police officers?
According to the 2004-05 BJS Survey of Campus Law Enforcement Agencies, 74% of colleges and universi... Read More
How many local law enforcement agencies use off-land (marine or air) vehicles?
According to the 2003 BJS Law Enforcement and Management Administrative Statistics (LEMAS) survey, 5... Read More
What does a training program for state and local law enforcement officers consist of and how long does it last?
The 2006 BJS Census of Law Enforcement Training Academies found that training programs for basic rec... Read More
How do the requirements for campus police officers compare with those for local police officers?
On average, local police officers were required to complete about 1,100 hours of training compared t... Read More
Which types of less than lethal weapons are authorized for use by local police officers?
According to the 2016 BJS Law Enforcement and Management Administrative Statistics (LEMAS) survey, a... Read More
What is ICE?
ICE is an acronym for U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement. ICE is the largest investigative arm... Read More
What is the average ratio of local police officers to residents?
According to the 2016 BJS Law Enforcement and Management Administrative Statistics (LEMAS) survey, d... Read More
How many complaints are there about police use of force every year? What are the outcomes of these complaints?
According to the Bureau of Justice Statistics' (BJS) Law Enforcement Management and Administrative S... Read More
What is LEMAS?
LEMAS stands for Law Enforcement Management and Administrative Statistics. The LEMAS survey is typic... Read More
What is NIBRS?
NIBRS stands for National Incident-Based Reporting System. Unlike the FBI's Uniform Crime Reporting ... Read More