Laura M. Maruschak, Todd D. Minton, BJS Statisticians
August 27, 2020 NCJ 252157
This report is the 23rd in a series that began in 1985. It provides statistics on populations supervised by adult correctional systems in the United States, including persons held in prisons or jails and those supervised in the community on probation or parole. It provides statistics on the size of the correctional populations at year-end 2017 and year-end 2018, and changes in populations over time.
- The adult correctional-supervision rate (adults supervised per 100,000 adult U.S. residents) decreased 21% from 2008 to 2018, from 3,160 to 2,510 per 100,000 adult U.S. residents.
- The percentage of adult U.S. residents under correctional supervision was lower in 2018 than at any time since 1992.
- The adult incarceration rate (adults in prison or jail per 100,000 adult U.S. residents) has declined every year since 2008, and the rate in 2018 was the lowest since 1996.
- The portion of adult U.S. residents in prison or jails fell 17% from 2008 to 2018.
- The correctional population declined 2.1% from 2017 to 2018, due to decreases in both the community-supervision (down 2.4%) and incarcerated (down 1.4%) populations.
Part of the Correctional Populations in the United States Series
Full report (PDF 701K)
Data tables (Zip format 17K)
Help for using BJS products
About the Source Data
Annual Probation Survey and Annual Parole Survey
Annual Survey of Jails (ASJ)
Mortality in Correctional Institutions (MCI) (Formerly Deaths in Custody Reporting Program (DCRP))
National Prisoner Statistics (NPS) Program
Survey of Jails in Indian Country (SJIC)
To cite this product, use the following link:
View All Publications and Products