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Publication Probation and Parole in the United States, 2016

Danielle Kaeble, BJS Statistician

April 26, 2018    NCJ 251148

Presents national data on adult offenders under community supervision on probation or parole in 2016, including trends in the overall community supervision population and annual changes in probation and parole populations. Appendix tables include jurisdiction-level data on population counts; types of entries to and exits from probation and parole; and offenders by sex, race, Hispanic origin, most serious offense type, and status of supervision. Findings are based on data from BJS's 2016 Annual Probation Survey and Annual Parole Survey.


  • At year-end 2016, an estimated 4,537,100 adults were under community supervision (probation or parole), down 49,800 offenders (down 1.1%) from January 1, 2016.
  • Approximately 1 in 55 adults in the United States were under community supervision at year-end 2016.
  • The adult probation population declined by 1.4% from January 1, 2016, to December 1, 2016, falling by 52,500 (to 3,673,100).
  • Probation exits increased from 2,043,200 in 2015 to 2,071,400 in 2016.
  • Exits from parole decreased from an estimated 463,700 in 2015 to 456,000 in 2016.

Part of the Probation and Parole Populations Series

Press Release
Summary (PDF 209K)
Full report (PDF 584K)
Data tables (Zip format)

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Annual Probation Survey and Annual Parole Survey

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