BJS: Bureau of Justice Statistics

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Campus Law Enforcement
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Campus law enforcement officers patrol colleges and universities, providing a quicker response time to incidents on campus than local police, and offer campus-specific services not necessarily available from local policing organizations.  Campus police forces can be comprised of both sworn police officers and non-sworn security officers.  Campus law enforcement agencies can have state, county, or city wide jurisdiction; others are limited to campus property.  These findings are based on the 2004-05 survey of Campus Law Enforcement Agencies (CLEA).

Summary findings

  • During the 2004-05 school year, the 750 agencies surveyed had more than 25,000 full-time employees, including about 13,000 sworn personnel. 
  • Three-quarters of 4-year colleges and universities with 2,500 or more students were served by a campus law enforcement agency with sworn officers with full arrest powers.
  • During the 2004-05 school year, 31% of sworn campus officers were a racial or ethnic (Hispanic or Latino) minority.  Among agencies included in both the 1994-95 and 2004-05 surveys, minorities-blacks, Hispanics, Asians, and other minorities-increased from 27% to 30%; Hispanics increased from 4.4% to 6%.
  • Women comprised almost 17% of officers during the 2004-05 school year, an increase from 14% during the 1994-95 school year. 
  • Two-thirds (67%) of campus law enforcement agencies surveyed used armed patrol officers during the 2004-05 school year.  Armed patrol officers were used at nearly 9 in 10 agencies that employ sworn officers and at nearly 1 in 10 agencies that relied on nonsworn officers only.
  • Nearly all campuses had 24-hour patrol, a 3-digit emergency number, and emergency blue-light phones.
  • About two-thirds (69%) of campus law enforcement agencies had incorporated community policing into their campus security policy. 
  • During the 2004-05 school year, more than 80% of agencies serving public and private campuses met regularly with other law enforcement agencies (88%) and with on- and off-campus groups and organizations-such as student housing groups (86%), faculty/staff organizations (84%), and student organizations (83%)-to discuss crime and safety-related problems on campus.

Data Collections & Surveys

Publications & Products


Campus Law Enforcement, 2011-12 Presents findings from a BJS survey of campus law enforcement agencies covering the 2011-12 academic year.
  Press Release | PDF (909K) | ASCII file (47K) | Comma-delimited format (CSV) (Zip format 37K)
Part of the Campus Law Enforcement Series

Census of Publicly Funded Forensic Crime Laboratories, 2009 Presents data on the more than 400 state, municipal, county, and federal crime laboratories operating in the United States during 2009.
  Press Release | PDF (861K) | ASCII file (36K) | Comma-delimited format (CSV) (Zip format 48K)
Part of the Census of Publicly Funded Forensic Crime Laboratories Series

Contacts between Police and the Public, 2008 Presents findings from a nationally representative survey of nearly 60,000 residents age 16 or older about their contact with police during the 12 months prior to the interview.
  Press Release | PDF (932K) | ASCII file (48K) | Spreadsheet (Zip format 51K) | Codebooks and Datasets
Part of the Contacts between Police and the Public Series

Contacts between Police and the Public, 2008 CONTACTS BETWEEN POLICE AND THE PUBLIC DECLINED FROM 2002 TO 2008
  Press Release
Part of the Contacts between Police and the Public Series

Campuses with 24-hour patrol and emergency telephone access to law enforcement, 2004-05 Table 4 from Campus Law Enforcement, 2004-05 Special Report
  Download CSV file (Data Table 1 KB)

Community policing activities of campus law enforcement agencies 2004-05 Table 9 from Campus Law Enforcement, 2004-05
  Download CSV file (Data Table 2 KB)

Community policing activities of campus law enforcement agencies, 2004-05 Table 9 from Campus Law Enforcement, 2004-05
  Download CSV file (Data Table 2 KB)

Campus Law Enforcement, 2004-05 Presents findings from a BJS survey of campus law enforcement agencies serving 4-year colleges and universities with 2,500 or more students.
  PDF (192K) | ASCII file (33K) | Spreadsheet (Zip format 33K) | To order paper version
Part of the Campus Law Enforcement Series

Law Enforcement Officers, 1975-1998 (Sworn Personnel) Presents the number of full-time sworn law enforcement officers, rate per 100,000 residents, and percent change since 1975 in the United States.
  Download CSV file (Spreadsheet 2K)

Campus Law Enforcement Agencies, 1995 Presents data collected from nearly 600 campus law enforcement agencies serving 4-year colleges and universities with 2,500 or more students.
  Press Release (4K) | PDF (750K) | ASCII file (150K) | Supporting spreadsheets for Appendices A-E (Spreadsheet 20K) | Supporting spreadsheets for Figures 1-11 (Spreadsheet 15K) | Codebooks and Datasets | To order paper version
Part of the Campus Law Enforcement Series

Terms & Definitions

The Clery Act The Jeanne Clery Disclosure of Campus Security Policy and Campus Crime Statistics Act was signed into law in 1990. It requires institutions of higher education that participate in federal financial aid programs to keep and disclose information about crime on and near campus. Clery Act statistics are available on the Campus Security Data Analysis Cutting Tool site.