BJS: Bureau of Justice Statistics

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Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS)
Parole
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The Bureau of Justice Statistics maintains the Annual Probation and Parole Survey, an annual data series designed to provide national, federal, and jurisdiction-level data from administrative records on adults supervised in the community on parole. Data include the total number of parolees supervised, by jurisdiction, on January 1 and December 31 of each year and the number of adults who entered and exited parole supervision during the year. Additional data include demographic characteristics, such as sex, race and Hispanic or Latino origin, and offense of parolee under supervision at the end of each year.

Data Collections & Surveys

Publications & Products


Probation and Parole in the United States, 2013 Presents data on adult offenders under community supervision while on probation or parole in 2013.
  PDF (1.7M) | ASCII file (45K) | Comma-delimited format (CSV) (Zip format 32K)
Part of the Probation and Parole Populations Series

Correctional Populations in the United States, 2012 Summarizes data from various correctional collections to provide statistics on the number of offenders supervised by the adult correctional systems in the U.S. Adult correctional systems include offenders supervised in the community under the authority of probation or parole agencies and inmates held in state and federal prisons or local jails.
  Press Release | PDF (766K) | ASCII file (23K) | Comma-delimited format (CSV) (Zip format 15K)
Part of the Correctional Populations in the United States Series

Probation and Parole in the United States, 2012 Presents data on adult offenders under community supervision while on probation or parole during 2012. The report describes trends in the overall community supervision population and reports on change in the probation and parole populations.
  Press Release | PDF (1.6M) | ASCII (ASCII file 51K) | Comma-delimited format (CSV) (Zip format 30K)
Part of the Probation and Parole Populations Series

Correctional Populations in the United States, 2012 TOTAL U.S. CORRECTIONAL POPULATION DECLINED IN 2012 FOR FOURTH YEAR
  Press Release
Part of the Correctional Populations in the United States Series

Probation and Parole in the United States, 2012 TOTAL U.S. CORRECTIONAL POPULATION DECLINED IN 2012 FOR FOURTH YEAR
  Press Release
Part of the Probation and Parole Populations Series

Adults on parole, federal and state-by-state, 1975-2012 Presents the number of persons on probation and parole from 1975 to yearend 2012, by state.
  Download CSV file (Spreadsheet 18 KB)

Probation and Parole in the United States, 2011 Presents data on adult offenders under community supervision while on probation or parole during 2011. The report describes trends in the overall community supervision population and analyzes changes in the probation and parole populations.
  Press Release | PDF | ASCII file | Comma-delimited format (CSV) (Zip format)
Part of the Probation and Parole Populations Series

Probation and Parole in the United States, 2011 ONE IN 34 U.S. ADULTS UNDER CORRECTIONAL SUPERVISION IN 2011, LOWEST RATE SINCE 2000
  Press Release
Part of the Probation and Parole Populations Series

Correctional Populations in the United States, 2011 ONE IN 34 U.S. ADULTS UNDER CORRECTIONAL SUPERVISION IN 2011, LOWEST RATE SINCE 2000
  Press Release
Part of the Correctional Populations in the United States Series

Correctional Populations in the United States, 2010 U.S. CORRECTIONAL POPULATION DECLINED FOR SECOND CONSECUTIVE YEAR
  Press Release
Part of the Correctional Populations in the United States Series

Terms & Definitions

Community corrections The supervision of criminal offenders in the resident population, as opposed to confining offenders in secure correctional facilities. The two main types of community corrections supervision are probation and parole. Community corrections is also referred to as community supervision.
 
Movement In corrections, a movement refers to an admission or a release from a status such as prisoner, parolee, or probationer. Unless specifically noted, a transfer between facilities does not count as a movement.
 
Parole Parole refers to criminal offenders who are conditionally released from prison to serve the remaining portion of their sentence in the community. Prisoners may be released to parole by a parole board decision (discretionary release/discretionary parole), according to provisions of a statute (mandatory release/mandatory parole), through other types of post-custody conditional supervision, or as the result of a sentence to a term of supervised release. In the federal system, a term of supervised release is a sentence to a fixed period of supervision in the community that follows a sentence to a period of incarceration in federal prison, both of which are ordered at the time of sentencing by a federal judge. Parolees can have a number of different supervision statuses including active supervision, which means they are required to regularly report to a parole authority in person, by mail, or by telephone. Some parolees may be on an inactive status which means they are excluded from regularly reporting, and that could be due to a number of reasons. For instance, some may receive a reduction in supervision, possibly due to compliance or meeting all required conditions before the parole sentence terminates, and therefore may be moved from an active to inactive status. Other supervision statues include parolees who only have financial conditions remaining, have absconded, or who have active warrants. Parolees are also typically required to fulfill certain conditions and adhere to specific rules of conduct while in the community. Failure to comply with any of the conditions can result in a return to incarceration.
 
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