BJS: Bureau of Justice Statistics

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Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS)
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What information do you have on identity theft?
The most recent information we have available on identity theft can be found within the Victims...  Read More

What is the Identity Theft Supplement (ITS)?
The Identity Theft Supplement (ITS) is a supplement to the National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS...  Read More

Where can I find a list of federally recognized tribes in the U.S.?
A list of federally recognized tribes in the U.S. is available at http://www.loc.gov/catdir/cpso/bia...  Read More

Where can I find updated information about the National Survey of Tribal Court Systems (NSTCS)?
Updated information about the National Survey of Tribal Court Systems is available at https://w...  Read More

Can I get more details about federal mortality statistics?
No. Unlike local jails and state prisons, federal agencies, including the Bureau of Prisons, were no...  Read More

Why can't I find death counts for the current year?
It takes about 2 years to process death data because core data collection runs the full calendar yea...  Read More

Are homicide counts limited to homicides committed by other inmates or facility staff?
No. The total homicide count includes all types of intentional homicide and involuntary manslaughter...  Read More

What qualifies as custody of an inmate?
In the Deaths in Custody Reporting Program (DCRP), custody refers to the physical holding of an inma...  Read More

How can I identify a tribal leader for a specific tribe?
Go to 2011 Tribal Leaders Directory...  Read More

Where can I find information on Department of Justice (DOJ) policies or other activities for Indian country?
DOJ Tribal Justice and Safety DOJ Office of Tribal Justice OJP American Indian and A...  Read More

Where can I find U.S. population counts for American Indians and Alaska Natives?
Census brief:  The American Indian and Alaska Native Population: 2010  Press re...  Read More

Does an arrest warrant need to be issued before a death is considered to be arrest-related?
No. Deaths of arrest subjects were included in the collection regardless of whether an arrest warran...  Read More

Are deaths caused by civilians, during the process of arrest, included in the ARD program?
Yes. Arrest subjects whose death results from injuries sustained by non-law enforcement personnel a...  Read More

Are deaths resulting from vehicle accidents considered to be arrest-related?
Sometimes. Vehicular accidents that are specifically related to arrest activities are within the sco...  Read More

What types of arrest-related deaths are recorded as accidental?
The term accidental injury is used to describe the sustainment of unintentional physical damage or h...  Read More

When are suicides included in the ARD program?
The term suicide is used to describe the intentional killing of oneself. A suicide is considered arr...  Read More

Are deaths resulting from any use of force by state or local law enforcement personnel included in the ARD program?
Yes. All deaths resulting from any use of force by law enforcement officers are included in the ARD...  Read More

Does a person have to be in physical custody of law enforcement at the time of death to be reported to the Arrest-Related Deaths program?
No. Deaths were not excluded from the collection on the basis that physical custody had not been est...  Read More

How do you cite BJS publications and products?
BJS does not hold copyrights on the suggested information; it may be freely distributed, copied, or ...  Read More

I want a more recent version of a report that you have on your webpage. Do you have it? When are you going to update that report?
The reports located on BJS website are the most recent versions. Some reports are updated occas...  Read More

How does the NCVS differ from the Uniform Crime Reports done by the FBI?
The NCVS and UCR both offer important information on criminal victimization; however, the two p...  Read More

Why is there more than one set of national numbers about the crime rate and which one is right? 
There are two national crime series which have data on crime rates and trends. The National Cri...  Read More

I want information that the Census Bureau has about neighborhoods, blocks, or detailed geography. Why can't I have it?
The Census Bureau has regulations to protect confidentiality of data, which prevents release of any ...  Read More

What is the margin of error for the survey?
Many surveys have a specific margin of error because all of the questions are asked of every person....  Read More

What is statistical significance?
If we state that a finding is statistically significant at the 95% level, this means that if we had ...  Read More

You have a footnote saying that the number is based on 10 or fewer sample cases. But the number is larger than 10. How can this be?
We develop national estimates from sample cases of interviews with victims. We take the data we...  Read More

What is the difference between intimate partner violence and domestic violence?
Domestic relationships include intimate partners, immediate family members, and other relatives. In...  Read More

Do you have information on family violence?
See Intimate Partner Violence in the United States to get detailed information on family violence.&n...  Read More

Why do the numbers vary so much from year-to-year for some crimes such as rape/sexual assault? 
Although the overall NCVS includes about 40,000 households most households do not report any crimes....  Read More

Do you have data more recent than 1994 on the economic cost of crime? 
Yes. Information on the economic cost of crime is available in table 82 of Criminal Victimization in...  Read More

Do you have information on black-on-black crime?
Information on black on black crime is available in tables 42 and 48 one of our annual publications,...  Read More

What information do you have on workplace violence?
Reports on violence in the workplace offer the latest information on nonfatal and fatal forms of vio...  Read More

What information do you have on race/ethnicity and crime?
We have several reports that deal with race and crime.  The annual publication, Criminal Victim...  Read More

Do you have any information on disabled victims of crime?
Yes. The information is available in the Crime Against People with Disabilities series....  Read More

Does the NCVS collect data on kidnapping victims?
No, kidnapping is not a crime that is covered by the NCVS....  Read More

Does the NCVS have information on crime that occurs outside of the U.S.?
The NCVS does ask respondents the location of their victimizations and crimes that occur abroad can ...  Read More

What information do you have on gang members?
The most recent data released on gang members is available in Violence by Gang Members, 1993-2003. W...  Read More

Does the NCVS estimate crime on the state and/or local level?
No. The NCVS is based on a nationally representative sample of households. Estimates from the N...  Read More

What types of crime does the NCVS measure? 
The NCVS measures violent and property crime experienced by victims in the United States. This inclu...  Read More

How do I get paper copies of older reports that are not on your webpage?
You no longer have to order paper copies of BJS reports released prior to 1995. More than 450 BJS pu...  Read More

Are crime rates going up or down?
The NCVS is designed to measure crime on a yearly basis. Criminologists have many theories abou...  Read More

How can I get a copy of my criminal record?
At the State level, criminal records are usually maintained by the state police or public safety age...  Read More

What is the NICS Improvement Amendments Act of 2007?
The NICS Improvement Amendments Act of 2007, Pub. L. 110-180 ("NICS Improvement Act"), was...  Read More

How can I find out about available federal grants for criminal justice programs, equipment, or for other purposes?
Grant opportunities available through the Department of Justice’s Office of Justice Programs a...  Read More

How can I get something on my criminal record corrected or removed?
At the state level, criminal records are usually maintained by the state police or public safety age...  Read More

Why was the NICS Improvement Act enacted?
The NICS Improvement Act was enacted in the wake of the April 2007 shooting tragedy at Virginia Tech...  Read More

What is the NICS?
The NICS is administered by the Federal Bureau of Investigations (FBI).  A NICS check includes ...  Read More

What are the federal categories of persons prohibited from receiving or possessing firearms?
The Gun Control Act of 1968, as amended, 18 U.S.C. 921, et seq., establishes the following categorie...  Read More

How are the terms "adjudicated as a mental defective" and "committed to a mental institution" defined?
Section 922(g)(4), Title 18, United States Code, prohibits the receipt or possession of firearms by ...  Read More

Does the NICS maintain a database of medical records or information on an individual's mental health condition, diagnosis, or treatment?
No. Only records of court or other lawful authority findings or orders that the meet the above ATF d...  Read More

Why is it important to have information about mental health adjudications or commitments in a national database?
When information about such adjudications and commitments is provided to the NICS, the FBI can deny ...  Read More

What provisions are made to ensure the privacy of the information identifying persons with disqualifying mental health adjudications or commitments?
The information in the NICS is subject to the Privacy Act and the privacy of the information is prot...  Read More

How does the NICS Improvement Act improve the information available for NICS checks?
The NICS Improvement Act seeks to improve the information available to the NICS, so that the system ...  Read More

What does the NICS Improvement Act do?
FOR STATES: The NICS Improvement Act has provisions that require states to meet specified goals for ...  Read More

What are the conditions that a state must meet to be eligible for the NICS Improvement Act grants?
For fiscal year 2009, $10 million has been appropriated. There are two conditions that each state mu...  Read More

What is ICE?
ICE is an acronym for U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement. ICE is the largest investigative arm...  Read More

What types of justice employment and expenditure data does the Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS) collect?
An increasing amount of financial and human resources continues to be devoted to federal, state, and...  Read More

What is the primary problem prosecutors' offices encounter in recruiting and retaining staff?
In 2005, 24% of prosecutors’ offices reported problems recruiting new staff, and 35% had probl...  Read More

What types of data does the Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS) collect on prosecutors?
The Prosecutors in State Courts statistical series began in 1990. The series focuses on the nation's...  Read More

How often do plaintiffs win in general civil trials?
Overall, plaintiffs won in 56% of all tort and contract trials in 2005. The rate of plaintiff succes...  Read More

How many general civil, tort, contract, and real property cases are concluded annually by bench or jury trial?
The 2005 Civil Justice Survey of State Courts (CJSSC)shows that about 26,950 tort, contact, and real...  Read More

Have the education and training requirements for trial court judges changed over time?
From 1987 to 2004, the percentage of trial courts requiring judges to hold a law degree increased fr...  Read More

What percentage of felony convictions were the result of a guilty plea?
Of the estimated 1,079,000 felons convicted in state courts in 2004, the vast majority (95%) of thos...  Read More

How many persons in the U.S. have ever been convicted of a felony?
This is a question the Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS) frequently receives and, unfortunately, ca...  Read More

What is the probability of conviction for felony defendants?
Among felony defendants whose cases were adjudicated within the one-year tracking period (89% of cas...  Read More

Where can I locate state-specific data on prison populations?
The Prisoners bulletin series provide state-level data on prisoners under the jurisdiction of s...  Read More

What type of new offenses are prosecutors encountering?
In addition to felony criminal matters, prosecutors’ offices handled a variety of other case t...  Read More

How have state court prosecutors' offices changed over the years?
Staffing and budget increases experienced by state court prosecutors' offices in the 1990s generally...  Read More

How high are the damage awards for plaintiffs who prevail in general civil trials?
In 2005 estimated $6 billion in compensatory and punitive damages was awarded to plaintiffs who won ...  Read More

What types of general civil cases are disposed of by bench or jury trial?
Results from the Civil Justice Survey of State Courts, 2005, show that 61% of civil cases concluded ...  Read More

How many persons are arrested or charged with felony crimes in the U.S.?
This is a question the Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS) frequently receives and unfortunately cann...  Read More

How many persons have contact with the police in a given year?
During 2011, over 62.9 million U.S. residents age 16 or older, or 26% of the population, had one or ...  Read More

How many complaints are there about police use of force every year? What are the outcomes of these complaints?
According to the Bureau of Justice Statistics' (BJS) Law Enforcement Management and Administrative S...  Read More

What percentage of persons in a motor vehicle or public place were stopped by police and searched or frisked?
In 2011, about three percent of drivers in traffic stops and 19 percent of persons involved in stree...  Read More

What are the characteristics of persons who come into contact with the police for different reasons?
An estimated 31.4 million persons age 16 or older, or 13% of the population, requested assistance fr...  Read More

What are the requirements for full-time instructors at training academies?
Slightly over two-thirds (68%) of training academies had a minimum experience requirement for full-t...  Read More

On average, how many recruits graduate from their training program?
About 6 in 7 recruits completed their basic training program and graduated from the academy....  Read More

What does a training program for state and local law enforcement officers consist of and how long does it last?
The 2006 BJS Census of Law Enforcement Training Academies found that training programs for basic rec...  Read More

Which tribes have sworn law enforcement personnel and the source of authority?
see comment...  Read More

How do the requirements for campus police officers compare with those for local police officers?
On average, local police officers were required to complete about 1,100 hours of training compared t...  Read More

What types of functions do campus law enforcement officers perform?
Campus law enforcement agencies performed functions related to special events security, dispatching ...  Read More

How many persons were convicted of a felony in my state last year?
The Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS) does not have conviction and sentencing information by state....  Read More

What percentage of public employees are devoted to criminal justice at the state and local levels, and by which functions?
In 2012, about 11% (or 2.1 million persons) of all public employees at the state and local levels wo...  Read More

What contributions do federal, state, and local budgets make to justice expenditures in the United States?
In 2012, local governments funded half (or $132 billion) of all direct justice system—police p...  Read More

How many college campuses have sworn, armed police officers?
According to the 2004-05 BJS Survey of Campus Law Enforcement Agencies, 74% of colleges and universi...  Read More

What is the difference between sworn and nonsworn officers?
Sworn officers have full arrest powers granted by a state or local government. Nonsworn officers do ...  Read More

What are federal officers' major functions?
The largest number of federal officers performed criminal investigation and law enforcement duties (...  Read More

How many sheriffs' departments use off-land (marine or air) vehicles?
According to the 2003 BJS Law Enforcement and Management Administrative Statistics (LEMAS) survey, 3...  Read More

How many cars are operated by Sheriffs' offices nationwide?
According to the 2003 BJS Law Enforcement and Management Administrative Statistics (LEMAS) survey, s...  Read More

What is the average ratio of Sheriffs' deputies to residents?
-...  Read More

How many local law enforcement agencies use off-land (marine or air) vehicles?
According to the 2003 BJS Law Enforcement and Management Administrative Statistics (LEMAS) survey, 5...  Read More

What types of duties do U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP) officers perform?
CBP officers are tasked with stopping terrorists, terrorist weapons, illegal drugs, aliens, and mate...  Read More

Who is the largest employer of federal officers?
The largest employers of federal officers were U.S. customs and Border Protection (CBP) (27,705), Fe...  Read More

What are federal officers' major functions?
The largest number of federal officers performed criminal investigation and law enforcement duties (...  Read More

Where can I find the data collections that are archived for public use?
Not all datasets are available for public use. We are actively working on mechanisms to ma...  Read More

Why are data so difficult to compare over years?
Caution must be used when using trend data, as definitions and reporting capabilities change over ti...  Read More

Why do data take so long to collect and publish?
Data collections vary in scope, burden, and frequency of collection - (see individual data collectio...  Read More

What is the difference between probation and parole?
Probation refers to adult offenders whom courts place on supervision in the community through a prob...  Read More

What is the difference between jurisdiction and custody counts?
To have jurisdiction means that an entity has legal authority over a prisoner. To have custody of a ...  Read More

What is the difference between jails and prisons?
Jails are locally-operated, short term facilities that hold inmates awaiting trial or sentencing or ...  Read More

Why are there so many different counts for those under correctional supervision?
As with any specialized field, criminal justice has specific terms to convey specific ideas. Persons...  Read More

How many officers do these state and local law enforcement agencies employ?
According to the 2004 BJS Census of State and Local Enforcement Agencies, state and local agencies e...  Read More

How do the Bureau of Justice Statistics' (BJS) counts of law enforcement officers differ from the annual counts of the FBI's Uniform Crime Reports (UCR)?
BJS counts generated by the Census of State and Local Law Enforcement Agencies (CSLLEA) are mor...  Read More

Which types of less than lethal weapons are authorized for use by local police officers?
According to the 2003 BJS Law Enforcement and Management Administrative Statistics (LEMAS) survey, n...  Read More

How many cars are operated by state and local law enforcement agencies nationwide?
According to the Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS) Law Enforcement and Management Administrative St...  Read More

How do I access files in "zip" format?
In many instances, spreadsheets or other files have been grouped and compressed to speed downlo...  Read More

Can I receive electronic notifications when new Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS) materials are available?
You can subscribe to BJS' JUSTSTATS email list to get electronic notices of new crime and justice st...  Read More

When was the Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS) created?
The Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS) was first established in 1979. To learn more about the histor...  Read More

What is the mission of the Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS)?
The mission of BJS is to collect, analyze, publish, and disseminate information on crime, criminal o...  Read More

How many offenders have been executed?
In 2013, 39 inmates were executed in the United States. The Bureau of Justice Statistics' (BJS)...  Read More

Does the Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS) collect data on deaths in custody?
BJS' Deaths in Custody Reporting Program (DCRP) collects quarterly inmate death records from each of...  Read More

What is LEMAS?
LEMAS stands for Law Enforcement Management and Administrative Statistics. The LEMAS survey is typic...  Read More

What is the National Criminal History Improvement Program (NCHIP)?
The purpose of the Bureau of Justice Statistics' (BJS) NCHIP is to ensure that accurate records are ...  Read More

Where can the Sourcebook of Criminal Justice Statistics be accessed?
The Sourcebook of Criminal Justice Statistics is now an online resource available on the Sourcebook ...  Read More

What is NIBRS?
NIBRS stands for National Incident-Based Reporting System. Unlike the FBI's Uniform Crime Reporting ...  Read More

What does UCR stand for?
UCR stands for the Uniform Crime Reporting Program, a project of the FBI. You can learn more about t...  Read More

What is the National Crime Victimization Survey?
The Bureau of Justice Statistics' (BJS) National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS) is the natio...  Read More

Can I order a poster version of "What is the sequence of events in the criminal justice system?"
The "What is the sequence of events in the criminal justice system?" flowchart summarizes ...  Read More

Where can I find the Bureau of Justice Statistics' (BJS) surveys that specifically relate to corrections?
The Data Collections section of the BJS website provides information about and links to the differen...  Read More

How many offenders are on probation?
The probation population decreased by 38,300 probationers during 2012, from 3,981,100 to 3,942,800. ...  Read More

What is prison?
Compared to jail facilities, prisons are longer-term facilities owned by a state or by the federal g...  Read More

Can Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS) publications be ordered in hardcopy?
BJS resources available to order can be found on the BJS Online Orders section of the National Crimi...  Read More

Where are Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS) job opportunities posted?
The Office of Justice Programs' (OJP) Jobs page contains information about and methods of locat...  Read More

What is JUSTSTATS?
JUSTSTATS is an email notifying subscribers of new crime and justice statistical materials as they b...  Read More

Why do states have to create relief from disabilities programs for the mental health prohibitor?
Before the enactment of the National Instant Criminal Background Check System (NICS) Improvement Act...  Read More

Where can a state get further information on the requirements of the relief from disabilities program required to be eligible for grant funding?
The Bureau of Alchol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives (ATF) is available to answer questions about ...  Read More

How should a state calculate the "reasonable estimate" of records subject to the National Instant Criminal Background Check System (NICS) Improvement Act's completeness requirements?
The Act requires the Attorney General to establish for use by the states a methodology to calculate ...  Read More

What are the authorized purposes for use of grant funds under the National Instant Criminal Background Check System (NICS) Improvement Act?
FOR STATE AND TRIBAL GOVERMENTS: Section 103 of the Act, regarding implementation assistance to the ...  Read More

Doesn't the federal government already have a program to improve automation for information used for firearm eligibility checks?
The Brady Act recognizes the need to automate state record systems that contribute most of the rel...  Read More

How are the National Instant Criminal Background Check System (NICS) Improvement Act grant programs different than the National Criminal History Improvement Program (NCHIP)?
The NICS Improvement Act grant programs do not supplant NCHIP. Rather, the NICS Improvement Act gran...  Read More


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