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Felony Defendants in Large Urban Counties, 2004
- Statistical Tables

���������������Tracey Kyckelhahn and
               Thomas H. Cohen, BJS Statisticians


On this page:
·
Brief description
·
Statistical tables (grouped by topic):
    · Arrests · Adjudication
    · Criminal History · Sentencing
    · Pretrial Release and Misconduct   · Appendices
·
Downloads
·
Methodology
·
Additional information
   


Presents data collected from a representative sample of felony cases filed in the nation's 75 largest counties during May 2004. Murder cases were tracked for up to 2 years and all other cases for 1 year to provide a complete overview of the processing of felony defendants from case filing to disposition and sentencing. These electronic tables provide data on felony defendants, including demographic characteristics, types of arrest charges, criminal record (criminal justice status at the time of arrest and number and type of prior arrests and convictions), conditions of pretrial release (bail amounts, type of release bonds, and pretrial misconduct), adjudication outcomes (dismissal, diversion, guilty plea, trial conviction rates), and sentencing data for convicted felony defendants. This is an electronic only document. NCJ 221374

Findings based on these tables are included in Felony Defendants in Large Urban Counties, 2004, a periodic report that has been published biennially since 1990. The data represented are from a single year of a data series. More recent editions may be available. To view a list of recent reports in the series and get additional information about the data series, go to the publications page.

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Statistical tables


Arrests
  Table 1.  Felony defendants, by most serious arrest charge, 2004
  Table 2.  Race and Hispanic origin of felony defendants, by most serious arrest charge, 2004
  Table 3.  Gender of felony defendants, by most serious arrest charge, 2004
  Table 4.  Age at arrest of felony defendants, by most serious arrest charge, 2004
   
Criminal History
  Table 5.  Criminal justice status of felony defendants at time of arrest, by most serious current arrest charge, 2004
  Table 6.  Number of prior arrest charges of felony defendants, by most serious current arrest charge, 2004
  Table 7.  Number of prior convictions of felony defendants, by most serious current arrest charge, 2004
  Table 8.  Most serious prior conviction of felony defendants, by most serious current arrest charge, 2004
   
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Pretrial Release and Misconduct
  Table 9.  Felony defendants released before or detained until case disposition, by most serious arrest charge, 2004
  Table 10.  Type of pretrial release or detention of felony defendants, by most serious arrest charge, 2004
 

Table 11.  Bail amount set for felony defendants, by most serious arrest charge, 2004

  Table 12.  Median and mean bail amounts set for felony defendants, by pretrial release/detention outcome and most serious arrest charge, 2004
  Table 13.  Time from arrest to release for felony defendants released before case disposition, by most serious arrest charge, 2004
  Table 14.  Percent of felony defendants who were released prior to case disposition, by criminal history, 2004
 

Table 15.  Released felony defendants committing misconduct, by most serious arrest charge, 2004

  Table 16.  Released felony defendants who failed to make a scheduled court appearance, by most serious arrest charge, 2004
  Table 17.  Released felony defendants who were rearrested prior to case disposition, by most serious arrest charge, 2004
   
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Adjudication
  Table 18.  Time from arrest to adjudication for felony defendants, by most serious arrest charge, 2004
  Table 19.  Adjudication outcome for felony defendants, by most serious arrest charge, 2004
  Table 20.  Adjudication outcome for felony defendants, by detention-release outcome and most serious arrest charge, 2004
  Table 21.  Conviction offense of defendants arrested for a violent offense and subsequently convicted, by most serious arrest charge, 2004
  Table 22.  Conviction offense of defendants arrested for a nonviolent offense and subsequently convicted, by most serious arrest charge, 2004
  Table 23.  Felony defendants, by conviction offense, 2004
   
Sentencing
  Table 24.  Time from conviction to sentencing for convicted defendants, by most serious conviction offense, 2004
  Table 25.  Most severe type of sentence received by convicted defendants, by most serious conviction offense, 2004
  Table 26.  Length of prison sentence received by defendants convicted of a felony, by most serious conviction offense, 2004
  Table 27.  Length of jail sentence received by convicted defendants, by most serious conviction offense, 2004
  Table 28.  Length of probation sentence received by convicted defendants, by most serious conviction offense, 2004
  Table 29.  Conditions of probation sentence received most often by convicted defendants, by most serious conviction offense, 2004
  Table 30.  Most severe type of sentence received by defendants convicted of a felony, by prior conviction record, 2004
 
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Appendices
  Appendix table A - Population, sampling weights, and number of cases, by SCPS jurisdiction, 2004
 

Appendix table B - Most serious arrest charge of felony defendants, by SCPS jurisdiction, 2004

  Appendix table C - Gender and age of felony defendants, by SCPS jurisdiction, 2004
  Appendix table D - Race and Hispanic/Latino origin, by SCPS jurisdiction, 2004
  Appendix table E - Felony defendants released before or detained until case disposition, by SCPS jurisdiction, 2004
  Appendix table F - Failure-to-appear and rearrest rates of defendants released prior to case disposition, by SCPS jurisdiction, 2004
  Appendix table G - Adjudication outcome for felony defendants, by SCPS jurisdiction, 2004
  Appendix table H - Most severe type of sentence received by defendants convicted of a felony, by SCPS jurisdiction, 2004

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Downloads

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Methodology


The SCPS sample was designed and selected by U.S. Census Bureau staff. It is a 2-stage stratified sample, with 40 of the 75 most populous counties selected at stage one and a systematic sample of state court felony filings (defendants) within each county selected at stage two. The 40 counties were divided into 4 first-stage strata based on court filing information. Ten counties were included in the sample with certainty because of their large number of court filings. The remaining counties were allocated to the three noncertainty strata based on the variance of felony court dispositions.



SCPS first-stage design

Stratum Number of counties

Sample Universe Weight

One 10 10 1.0
Two 10 18 1.8
Three 10 22 2.2
Four 10 25 2.5

The second-stage sampling (filings) was designed to represent all defendants who had felony cases filed with the court during the month of May 2004. The participating jurisdictions provided data for every felony case filed on selected days during that month. Depending on the first-stage stratum in which it had been placed, each jurisdiction provided filings data for 5, 10, or 20 selected business days in May 2004. Data from jurisdictions that were not required to provide a full month of filings were weighted to represent the full month (see Appendix A).

SCPS second-stage design

  Number of days of filings provided  
Stratum Weight

One 5 4
Two 10 2
Three 10 2
Four 20 1

 

The 2004 SCPS collected data for 15,761 felony cases filed during May 2004 in 40 large counties. These cases were part of a sample that was representative of the estimated 57,497 felony cases filed in the nation's 75 most populous counties during that month. Murder cases were tracked for up to 2 years and all other cases for up to 1 year.

This report is based on data collected from the following counties: Alabama (Jefferson); Arizona (Maricopa, Pima); California (Alameda, Contra Costa, Los Angeles, Orange, Riverside, San Bernardino, San Diego, San Mateo, Santa Clara); Florida (Broward, Miami-Dade, Palm Beach, Pinellas); Georgia (Fulton); Hawaii (Honolulu); Illinois (Cook); Indiana (Marion); Maryland (Baltimore, Montgomery); Michigan (Wayne); New Jersey (Essex); New York (Bronx, Kings, Nassau, Queens, Westchester); Ohio (Franklin); Pennsylvania (Montgomery, Philadelphia); Tennessee (Shelby); Texas (Dallas, El Paso, Harris, Tarrant, Travis); Utah (Salt Lake City); Virginia (Fairfax).

Because the data came from a sample, a sampling error is associated with each reported number. In general, if the difference between two numbers is greater than twice the standard error for that difference, we can say that we are 95% confident of a real difference and that the apparent difference is not simply the result of using a sample rather than the entire population.

Offense categories

Felony offenses were classified into 16 categories for this report. These were further classified into the four major crime categories of violent, property, drug, and public-order. The following listings are a representative summary of the crimes in each category; however, these lists are not meant to be exhaustive. All offenses, except for murder, include attempts and conspiracies to commit. 

Violent offenses

Murder -- Includes homicide, nonnegligent manslaughter, and voluntary homicide. Excludes attempted murder (classified as felony assault), negligent homicide, involuntary homicide, or vehicular manslaughter, which are classified as other violent offenses.

Rape -- Includes forcible intercourse, sodomy, or penetration with a foreign object. Does not include statutory rape or nonforcible acts with a minor or someone unable to give legal consent, nonviolent sexual offenses, or commercialized sex offenses.

Robbery -- Includes unlawful taking of anything of value by force or threat of force. Includes armed, unarmed, and aggravated robbery, car-jacking, armed burglary, and armed mugging.

Assault -- Includes aggravated assault, aggravated battery, attempted murder, assault with a deadly weapon, felony assault or battery on a law enforcement officer, and other felony assaults. Does not include extortion, coercion, or intimidation.

Other violent offenses -- Includes vehicular manslaughter, involuntary manslaughter, negligent or reckless homicide, nonviolent or non-forcible sexual assault, kidnapping, unlawful imprisonment, child or spouse abuse, cruelty to a child, reckless endangerment, hit-and-run with bodily injury, intimidation, and extortion.

Property offenses

Burglary -- Includes any type of entry into a residence, industry, or business with or without the use of force with the intent to commit a felony or theft.  Does not include possession of burglary tools, trespassing, or unlawful entry for which the intent is not known.

Larceny/theft -- Includes grand theft, grand larceny, and any other felony theft, including burglary from an automobile, theft of rental property, and mail theft. Does not include motor vehicle theft, receiving or buying stolen property, fraud, forgery, or deceit.

Motor vehicle theft -- Includes auto theft, conversion of an automobile, receiving and transferring an automobile, unauthorized use of a vehicle, possession of a stolen vehicle, and larceny or taking of an automobile.

Forgery -- Includes forging of a driver's license, official seals, notes, money orders, credit or access cards or names of such cards or any other documents with fraudulent intent, uttering a forged instrument, counterfeiting, and forgery.

Fraud -- Includes possession and passing of worthless checks or money orders, possession of false documents or identification, embezzlement, obtaining money by false pretenses, credit card fraud, welfare fraud, Medicare fraud, insurance claim fraud, fraud, swindling, stealing a thing of value by deceit, and larceny by check.

Other property offenses -- Includes receiving or buying stolen property, arson, reckless burning, damage to property, criminal mischief, vandalism, criminal trespassing, possession of burglary tools, and unlawful entry for which the interest is unknown. 

Drug offenses

Drug trafficking  -- Includes trafficking, sales, distribution, possession with intent to distribute or sell, manufacturing, and smuggling of controlled substances. Does not include possession of controlled substances.

Other drug offenses -- Includes possession of controlled substances, prescription violations, possession of drug paraphernalia, and other drug law violations.

Public-order offenses

Weapons -- Includes the unlawful sale, distribution, manufacture, alteration, transportation, possession, or use of a deadly weapon or accessory.

Driving-related -- Includes driving under the influence of drugs or alcohol, driving with a suspended or revoked license, and any other felony in the motor vehicle code.

Other public-order offenses -- Includes flight/escape, parole or probation violations, prison contraband, habitual offender, obstruction of justice, rioting, libel, slander, treason, perjury, prostitution, pandering, bribery, and tax law violations.

Terms related to pretrial release

Released defendant -- Includes any defendant who was released from custody prior to the disposition of his or her case by the court. Includes defendants who were detained for some period of time before being released and defendants who were returned to custody after being released because of a violation of the conditions of pretrial release. The terms "on pretrial release" and "released pending disposition" are both used in this report to refer to all released defendants.

Detained defendant -- Includes any defendant who remained in custody from the time of arrest until the disposition of his or her case by the court.  This report also refers to detained defendants as "not released."

Failure to appear -- Occurs when a court issues a bench warrant for a defendant's arrest because he or she missed a scheduled court appearance. 

Types of financial release

Surety bond -- A bail bond company signs a promissory note to the court for the full bail amount and charges the defendant a fee for the service (usually 10% of the full bail amount). If the defendant fails to appear, the bond company is liable to the court for the full bail amount. Frequently the bond company requires collateral from the defendant in addition to the fee.

Deposit bond -- The defendant deposits a percentage (usually 10%) of the full bail amount with the court. The percentage of the bail is returned after the disposition of the case, but the court often retains a small portion for administrative costs. If the defendant fails to appear in court, he or she is liable to the court for the full bail amount.

Full cash bond -- The defendant posts the full bail amount in cash with the court. If the defendant makes all court appearances, the cash is returned. If the defendant fails to appear in court, the bond is forfeited.

Property bond -- Involves an agreement made by a defendant as a condition of pretrial release requiring that property valued at the full bail amount be posted as an assurance of his or her appearance in court. If the defendant fails to appear in court, the property is forfeited. Also known as "collateral bond."

Types of nonfinancial release

Release on recognizance (ROR) -- The court releases the defendant on a signed agreement that he or she will appear in court as required. In this report, the ROR category includes citation releases in which arrestees are released pending their first court appearance on a written order issued by law enforcement or jail personnel.

Unsecured bond -- The defendant pays no money to the court but is liable for the full amount of bail should he or she fail to appear in court.

Conditional release -- Defendants are released under specified conditions. Monitoring or supervision, if required, is usually done by a pretrial services agency. In some cases, such as those involving a third-party custodian or drug monitoring and treatment, another agency may be involved in the supervision of the defendant. Conditional release sometimes includes an unsecured bond.

Other type of release

Emergency release -- Defendants are released in response to a court order placing limits on a jail's population.

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Additional information


Source: State Court Processing Statistics (SCPS).

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